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红外吸收光谱的基本原理
编辑 :

TIANJINSHINENGPUKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间: 2019-01-18 浏览量: 44

分子的振动与红外吸收

一、分子的振动与红外吸收

RENHEWUZHIDEFENZIDOUSHIYOUYUANZITONGGUOHUAXUEJIANLIANJIEQILAIERZUCHENGDE。FENZIZHONGDEYUANZIYUHUAXUEJIANDOUCHUYUBUDUANDEYUNDONGZHONG。TAMENDEYUNDONG,CHULEYUANZIWAICENGJIADIANZIYUEQIANYIWAI,HAIYOUFENZIZHONGYUANZIDEZHENDONGHEFENZIBENSHENDEZHUANDONG。ZHEIXIEYUNDONGXINGSHIDOUKENENGXISHOUWAIJIENENGLIANGERYINQINENGJIDEYUEQIAN,MEIYIGEZHENDONGNENGJICHANGBAOHANYOUHENDUOZHUANDONGFENNENGJI,YINCIZAIFENZIFASHENGZHENDONGNENGJIYUEQIANSHI,BUKEBIMIANDEFASHENGZHUANDONGNENGJIDEYUEQIAN,YINCIWUFACEDECHUNZHENDONGGUANGPU,GUTONGCHANGSUOCEDEDEGUANGPUSHIJISHANGSHIZHENDONG-ZHUANDONGGUANGPU,JIANCHENGZHENZHUANGUANGPU。

 

1、双原子分子的振

FENZIDEZHENDONGYUNDONGKEJINSIDIKANCHENGYIXIEYONGDANHUANGLIANJIEZHEDEXIAOQIUDEYUNDONG。YISHUANGYUANZIFENZIWEILI,RUOBALIANGYUANZIJIANDEHUAXUEJIANKANCHENGZHILIANGKEYIHULVEBUJIDEDANHUANG,ZHANGDUWEIr(JIANZHANG),LIANGGEYUANZIFENZILIANGWEIm1、m2。RUGUOBALIANGGEYUANZIKANCHENGLIANGGEXIAOQIU,ZETAMENZHIJIANDESHENSUOZHENDONGKEYIJINSIDEKANCHENGYANZHOUXIANFANGXIANGDEJIANXIEZHENDONG,RUTU3—2。YINCIKEYIBASHUANGYUANZIFENZICHENGWEIXIEZHENZI。ZHEIGETIXIDEZHENDONGPINLVυ(YIBOSHUBIAOSHI),YOUJINGDIANLIXUE(HUKEDINGLV)KEDAOCHU:

上海11选5走势图               C——GUANGSU(3×108 m/s)

上海11选5走势图 υ=           K——HUAXUEJIANDELICHANGSHU(N/m)

上海11选5走势图               μ——ZHEHEZHILIANG(kg)    μ=

 

RUGUOLICHANGSHUYIN/mWEIDANWEI,ZHEHEZHILIANGμYIYUANZIZHILIANGWEIDANWEI,ZESHANGSHIKEJIANHUAWEI 

υ=130.2

 

上海11选5走势图SHUANGYUANZIFENZIDEZHENDONGPINLVQUJUEYUHUAXUEJIANDELICHANGSHUHEYUANZIDEZHILIANG,HUAXUEJIANYUEQIANG,XIANGDUIYUANZIZHILIANGYUEXIAO,ZHENDONGPINLVYUEGAO。

H-Cl    2892.4 cm-1         C=C  1683 cm-1

上海11选5走势图C-H    2911.4 cm-1         C-C  1190 cm-1

 

TONGLEIYUANZIZUCHENGDEHUAXUEJIAN(ZHEHEZHILIANGXIANGTONG),LICHANGSHUDADE,JIBENZHENDONGPINLVJIUDA。YOUYUQINGDEYUANZIZHILIANGZUIXIAO,GUHANQINGYUANZIDANJIANDEJIBENZHENDONGPINLVDOUCHUXIANZAIZHONGHONGWAIDEGAOPINLVQU。

 

2、多原子分子的振动

(1)、基本振动的类型

DUOYUANZIFENZIJIBENZHENDONGLEIXINGKEFENWEILIANGLEI:SHENSUOZHENDONGHEWANQUZHENDONG。

上海11选5走势图YAJIAJICH2DEGEZHONGZHENDONGXINGSHI。

图片1.png

上海11选5走势图 DUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONG       BUDUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONG

   YAJIAJIDESHENSUOZHENDONG

图片3.png

                                 JIANSHIZHENDONG                    MIANNEIYAOBAI             MIANWAIYAOBAI                 NIUQUBIANXING

       MIANNEIWANQUZHENDONG                  MIANWAIWANQUZHENDONG

YAJIAJIDEJIBENZHENDONGXINGSHIJIHONGWAIXISHOU

 

A、SHENSUOZHENDONG  YONGυBIAOSHI,SHENSUOZHENDONGSHIZHIYUANZIYANZHEJIANZHOUFANGXIANGSHENSUO,SHIJIANZHANGFASHENGZHOUQIXINGDEBIANHUADEZHENDONG。

 

上海11选5走势图SHENSUOZHENDONGDELICHANGSHUBIWANQUZHENDONGDELICHANGSHUYAODA,YINERTONGYIJITUANDESHENSUOZHENDONGCHANGZAIGAOPINQUCHUXIANXISHOU。ZHOUWEIHUANJINGDEGAIBIANDUIPINLVDEBIANHUAYINGXIANGJIAOXIAO。YOUYUZHENDONGOUHEZUOYONG,YUANZISHUNDAYUDENGYU3DEJITUANHAIKEYIFENWEIDUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONGHEBUDUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONGFUHAOFENBIEWEIυsHEυasYIBANυasBIυsDEPINLVGAO。

 

上海11选5走势图B、WANQUZHENDONG YONGδBIAOSHI,WANQUZHENDONGYOUJIAOBIANXINGHUOBIANJIAOZHENDONG。YIBANSHIZHIJITUANJIANJIAOFASHENGZHOUQIXINGDEBIANHUADEZHENDONGHUOFENZIZHONGYUANZITUANDUIQIYUBUFENZUOXIANGDUIYUNDONG。WANQUZHENDONGDELICHANGSHUBISHENSUOZHENDONGDEXIAO,YINCITONGYIJITUANDEWANQUZHENDONGZAIQISHENSUOZHENDONGDEDIPINQUCHUXIAN,LINGWAIWANQUZHENDONGDUIHUANJINGJIEGOUDEGAIBIANKEYIZAIJIAOGUANGDEBODUANFANWEINEICHUXIAN,SUOYIYIBANBUBATAZUOWEIJITUANPINLVCHULI。

 

(2)、分子的振动自由度

上海11选5走势图DUOYUANZIFENZIDEZHENDONGBISHUANGYUANZIZHENDONGYAOFUZADEDUO。SHUANGYUANZIFENZIZHIYOUYIZHONGZHENDONGFANGSHI(SHENSUOZHENDONG),SUOYIKEYICHANSHENGYIGEJIBENZHENDONGXISHOUFENG。ERDUOYUANZIFENZISUIZHEYUANZISHUMUDEZENGJIA,ZHENDONGFANGSHIYEYUEFUZA,YINERTAKEYICHUXIANYIGEYISHANGDEXISHOUFENG,BINGQIEZHEIXIEFENGDESHUMUYUFENZIDEZHENDONGZIYOUDUYOUGUAN。

 

上海11选5走势图ZAIYANJIUDUOYUANZIFENZISHI,CHANGBADUOYUANZIDEFUZAZHENDONGFENJIEWEIXUDUOJIANDANDEJIBENZHENDONG(YOUCHENGJIANZHENGZHENDONG),ZHEIXIEJIBENZHENDONGSHUMUCHENGWEIFENZIDEZHENDONGZIYOUDU,JIANCHENGFENZIZIYOUDU。FENZIZIYOUDUSHUMUYUGAIFENZIZHONGGEYUANZIZAIKONGJIANZUOBIAOZHONGYUNDONGZHUANGTAIDEZONGHEJINJINXIANGGUAN。JINGDIANZHENDONGLILUNBIAOMING,HANNGEYUANZIDEXIANXINGFENZIQIZHENDONGZIYOUDU3N—5,FEIXIANXINGFENZIQIZHENDONGZIYOUDUWEI3N—6。MEIZHONGZHENDONGXINGSHIDOUYOUTATEDINGDEZHENDONGPINLV,YEJIYOUXIANGDUIYINGDEHONGWAIXISHOUFENG,YINCIFENZIZHENDONGZIYOUDUSHUMUYUEDA,ZEZAIHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUZHONGCHUXIANDEFENGSHUYEJIUYUEDUO。

 

二、红外吸收光谱产生条件

FENZIZAIFASHENGZHENDONGNENGJIYUEQIANSHI,XUYAOYIDINGDENENGLIANG,ZHEIGENENGLIANGTONGCHANGYOUFUSHETIXIDEHONGWAIGUANGLAIGONGJI。YOUYUZHENDONGNENGJISHILIANGZIHUADE,YINCIFENZIZHENDONGJIANGZHINENGXISHOUYIDINGDENENGLIANG,JIXISHOUYUFENZIZHENDONGNENGJIJIANGE  EZHENDENENGLIANGXIANGYINGBOZHANGDEGUANGXIAN。RUGUOGUANGLIANGZIDENENGLIANGWEIEL=hυL(υLSHIHONGWAIFUSHEPINLV),DANGFASHENGZHENDONGNENGJIYUEQIANSHI,BIXUMANZU            EZHEN=EL

 

上海11选5走势图FENZIZAIZHENDONGGUOCHENGZHONGBIXUYOUSHUNJIANOUJIJUDEGAIBIAN,CAINENGZAIHONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGCHUXIANXIANGDUIYINGDEXISHOUFENG,ZHEIZHONGZHENDONGCHENGWEIJUYOUHONGWAIHUOXINGDEZHENDONG。

 

LIRUCO2(4ZHONGZHENDONGXINGSHI)2349cm-1 、667cm-1

 

 红外吸收光谱产生条件

三、红外吸收峰的强度

 

上海11选5走势图FENZIZHENDONGSHIOUJIJUDEBIANHUABUJINJUEDINGLEGAIFENZINENGFOUXISHOUHONGWAIGUANGCHANSHENGHONGWAIGUANGPU,ERQIEHAIGUANXIDAOXISHOUFENGDEQIANGDU。GENJULIANGZILILUN,HONGWAIXISHOUFENGDEQIANGDUYUFENZIZHENDONGSHIOUJIJUBIANHUADEPINGFANGCHENGZHENGBI。YINCI,ZHENDONGSHIOUJIJUBIANHUAYUEDA,XISHOUQIANGDUYUEQIANG。EROUJIJUBIANHUADAXIAOZHUYAOQUJUEYUXIALIESIZHONGYINSU。

 

HUAXUEJIANLIANGDUANLIANJIEDEYUANZI,RUOTAMENDEDIANFUXINGXIANGCHAYUEDA(JIXINGYUEDA),SHUNJIANOUJIJUDEBIANHUAYEYUEDA,ZAISHENSUOZHENDONGSHI,YINQIDEHONGWAIXISHOUFENGYEYUEQIANG(YOUFEIMIGONGZHENDENGYINSUSHICHUWAI)。

 

2、ZHENDONGXINGSHIBUTONGDUIFENZIDEDIANHEFENBUYINGXIANGBUTONG,GUXISHOUFENGQIANGDUYEBUTONG。TONGCHANGBUDUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONGBIDUICHENGSHENSUOZHENDONGDEYINGXIANGDA,ERSHENSUOZHENDONGYOUBIWANQUZHENDONGYINGXIANGDA。

 

3、JIEGOUDUICHENGDEFENZIZAIZHENDONGGUOCHENGZHONG,RUGUOZHENGGEFENZIDEOUJIJUSHIZHONGWEILING,MEIYOUXISHOUFENGCHUXIAN。

 

QITAZHURUFEIMIGONGZHEN、XINGCHENGQINGJIANJIYUOUJIJUDADEJITUANGONGEDENGYINSU,YEHUISHIXISHOUFENGQIANGDUGAIBIAN。

上海11选5走势图HONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGXISHOUFENGDEQIANGDUKEYIYONGXIGUANGDU(A)HUOTOUGUOLVT%BIAOSHI。FENGDEQIANGDUZUNSHOULANGBO-BIERDINGLV。XIGUANGDUYUTOUGUOLVGUANXIWEI

上海11选5走势图                        A=lg(   )

SUOYIZAIHONGWAIGUANGPUZHONG“GU”YUESHEN(T%XIAO),XIGUANGDUYUEDA,XISHOUQIANGDUYUEQIANG。

红外吸收光谱中常用的几个术语 

四、红外吸收光谱中常用的几个术语

1、基频峰与泛频峰

DANGFENZIXISHOUYIDINGPINLVDEHONGWAIXIANHOU,ZHENDONGNENGJICONGJITAI(V0)YUEQIANDAODIYIJIFATAI(V1)SHISUOCHANSHENGDEXISHOUFENG,CHENGWEIJIPINFENG。

上海11选5走势图RUGUOZHENDONGNENGJICONGJITAI(V0)YUEQIANDAODIERJIFATAI(V2)、DISANJIFATAI(V3)….SUOCHANSHENGDEXISHOUFENGCHENGWEIBEIPINFENG。TONGCHANGJIPINFENGQIANGDUBIBEIPINFENGQIANG,YOUYUFENZIDEFEIXIEZHENXINGZHI,BEIPINFENGBINGFEISHIJIPINFENGDELIANGBEI,ERSHILVEXIAOYIXIE(H-Cl FENZIJIPINFENGSHI2885.9cm-1,QIANGDUHENDA,QIERBEIPINFENGSHI5668cm-1,SHIYIGEHENRUODEFENG)。HAIYOUZUPINFENG,TABAOKUOHEPINFENGJICHAPINFENG,TAMENDEQIANGDUGENGRUO,YIBANBUYIBIANREN。BEIPINFENG、CHAPINFENGJIHEPINFENGZONGCHENGWEIFANPINFENG。

 

2、特征峰与相关峰

上海11选5走势图HONGWAIGUANGPUDEZUIDATEDIANSHIJUYOUTEZHENGXING。FUZAFENZIZHONGCUNZAIXUDUOYUANZIJITUAN,GEGEYUANZITUANZAIFENZIBEIJIFAHOU,DOUHUIFASHENGTEZHENGDEZHENDONG。FENZIDEZHENDONGSHIZHISHANGSHIHUAXUEJIANDEZHENDONG。TONGGUOYANJIUFAXIAN,TONGYILEIXINGDEHUAXUEJIANDEZHENDONGPINLVFEICHANGJIEJIN,ZONGSHIZAIMOUGEFANWEINEI。LIRUCH3-NH2ZHONGNH2JIJUYOUYIDINGDEXISHOUPINLVERHENDUOHANYOUNH2JIDEHUAHEWU,ZAIZHEIGEPINLVFUJIN(3500—3100cm-1)YECHUXIANXISHOUFENG。YINCIFANSHINENGYONGYUJIANDINGYUANZITUANCUNZAIDEBINGYOUJIAOGAOQIANGDUDEXISHOUFENG,CHENGWEITEZHENGFENG,DUIYINGDEPINLVCHENGWEITEZHENGPINLV,YIGEJITUANCHUYOUTEZHENGFENGWAI,HAIYOUHENDUOQITAZHENDONGXINGSHIDEXISHOUFENG,XIGUANSHANGCHENGWEIXIANGGUANFENG。

 

五、红外吸收峰减少的原因

上海11选5走势图1、HONGWAIFEIHUOXINGZHENDONG,GAODUDUICHENGDEFENZI,YOUYUYOUXIEZHENDONGBUYINQIOUJIJUDEBIANHUA,GUMEIYOUHONGWAIXISHOUFENG。

 

2、BUZAITONGYIPINGMIANNEIDEJUYOUXIANGTONGPINLVDELIANGGEJIPINZHENDONG,KEFASHENGJIANBING,ZAIHONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGZHICHUXIANYIGEXISHOUFENG。

 

3、YIQIDEFENBIANLVDI,SHIYOUDEQIANGDUHENRUODEXISHOUFENGBUNENGJIANCHU,HUOXISHOUFENGXIANGJUTAIJINFENBUKAIERJIANBING。

 

4、YOUXIEJITUANDEZHENDONGPINLVCHUXIANZAIDIPINQU(ZHANGBOQU),CHAOCHUYIQIDECESHIFANWEI。

 

 

六、红外吸收峰增加的原因

1、倍频吸收

 

2、组合频的产生  

YIZHONGPINLVDEGUANG,TONGSHIBEILIANGGEZHENDONGSUOXISHOU,QINENGLIANGDUIYINGLIANGZHONGZHENDONGNENGJIDENENGLIANGBIANHUAZHIHE,QIDUIYINGDEXISHOUFENGCHENGWEIZUHEFENG,YESHIYIGERUOFENG,YIBANCHUXIANZAILIANGGEHUODUOGEJIPINZHIHEHUOCHADEFUJIN(JIPINWEIν1、ν2DELIANGGEXISHOUFENG,TAMENDEZUPINFENGZAIν1+ν2HUOν1-ν2 FUJIN)。 

 

3、振动偶合  

XIANGTONGDELIANGGEJITUANZAIFENZIZHONGKAODEHENJINSHI,QIXIANGYINGDETEZHENGFENGCHANGHUIFASHENGFENLIEXINGCHENGLIANGGEFENG,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGCHENGWEIZHENDONGOUHE(YIBINGJIZHONGDELIANGGEJIAJIXIANGHUZHENDONGOUHE,YINQIJIAJIDEDUICHENGWANQUZHENDONG1380cm-1CHUDEFENGLIEFENWEIQIANGDUCHABUDUODELIANGGEFENG,FENBIECHUXIANZAI1385~1380cm-1JI1375~1365cm-1)。

 

4、弗米共振

  BEIPINFENGHUOZUPINFENGWEIYUMOUQIANGDEJIPINFENGFUJINSHI,RUODEBEIPINFENGHUOZUPINFENGDEQIANGDUHUIBEIDADADEQIANGHUA,ZHEIZHONGBEIPINFENGHUOZUPINFENGYUJIPINFENGZHIJIANDEOUHE,CHENGWEIFUMIGONGZHEN,WANGWANGLIEFENWEILIANGGEFENG(QUANJIDEC-HSHENSUOZHENDONG2830~2965cm-1HEQIC-HWANQUZHENDONG1390cm-1DEBEIPINFENGFASHENGFUMIGONGZHEN,LIEFENWEILIANGGEFENG,ZAI2840cm-1HE2760cm-1FUJINCHUXIANLIANGGEZHONGDENGQIANGDUDEXISHOUFENG,ZHEICHENGWEIQUANJIDETEZHENGFENG)。

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