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红外光谱相关知识有哪些?
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TIANJINSHINENGPUKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间: 2018-06-13 浏览量: 3054

红外光谱



红外光谱是分子能选择性吸收某些波长的红外线,而引起分子中振动能级和转动能级的跃迁,检测红外线被吸收的情况可得到物质的红外吸收光谱,又称分子振动光谱或振转光谱。


1HONGWAIGUANGPUDEFENQU

TONGCHANGJIANGHONGWAIGUANGPUFENWEISANGEQUYU:JINHONGWAIQU(0.75~2.5μm)、ZHONGHONGWAIQU(2.5~25μm)HEYUANHONGWAIQU(25~300μm)。YIBANSHUOLAI,JINHONGWAIGUANGPUSHIYOUFENZIDEBEIPIN、HEPINCHANSHENGDE;ZHONGHONGWAIGUANGPUSHUYUFENZIDEJIPINZHENDONGGUANGPU;YUANHONGWAIGUANGPUZESHUYUFENZIDEZHUANDONGGUANGPUHEMOUXIEJITUANDEZHENDONGGUANGPU。YOUYUJUEDADUOSHUYOUJIWUHEWUJIWUDEJIPINXISHOUDAIDOUCHUXIANZAIZHONGHONGWAIQU,YINCIZHONGHONGWAIQUSHIYANJIUHEYINGYONGZUIDUODEQUYU,JILEIDEZILIAOYEZUIDUO,YIQIJISHUZUIWEICHENGSHU。TONGCHANGSUOSHUODEHONG]WAIGUANGPUJIZHIZHONGHONGWAIGUANGPU。

2红外谱图的分区

ANXISHOUFENGDELAIYUAN,KEYIJIANG2.5~25μmDEHONGWAIGUANGPUTUDATISHANGFENWEITEZHENGPINLVQU(2.5~7.7μm)YIJIZHIWENQU(7.7~16.7μm)LIANGGEQUYU。

TEZHENGPINLVQUZHONGDEXISHOUFENGJIBENSHIYOUJITUANDESHENSUOZHENDONGCHANSHENG,SHUMUBUSHIHENDUO,DANJUYOUHENQIANGDETEZHENGXING,YINCIZAIJITUANJIANDINGGONGZUOSHANGHENYOUJIAZHI,ZHUYAOYONGYUJIANDINGGUANNENGTUAN。RUTANGJI,BULUNSHIZAITONG、SUAN、ZHIHUOXIANANDENGLEIHUAHEWUZHONG,QISHENSUOZHENDONGZONGSHIZAI5.9μmZUOYOUCHUXIANYIGEQIANGXISHOUFENG,RUPUTUZHONG5.9μmZUOYOUYOUYIGEQIANGXISHOUFENG,ZEDAZHIKEYIDUANDINGFENZIZHONGYOUTANGJI。

ZHIWENQUDEQINGKUANGBUTONG,GAIQUFENGDUOERFUZA,MEIYOUQIANGDETEZHENGXING,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYIXIEDANJIANC-O、C-NHEC-X(LUSUYUANZI)DENGDESHENSUOZHENDONGJIC-H、O-HDENGHANQINGJITUANDEWANQUZHENDONGYIJIC-CGUJIAZHENDONGCHANSHENG。DANGFENZIJIEGOUSHAOYOUBUTONGSHI,GAIQUDEXISHOUJIUYOUXIWEIDECHAYI。

3HONGWAIGUANGPUDEFENLEI

HONGWAIGUANGPUKEFENWEIFASHEGUANGPUHEXISHOUGUANGPULIANGLEI。

WUTIDEHONGWAIFASHEGUANGPUZHUYAOJUEDINGYUWUTIDEWENDUHEHUAXUEZUCHENG,YOUYUCESHIBIJIAOKUNNAN,HONGWAIFASHEGUANGPUZHISHIYIZHONGZHENGZAIFAZHANDEXINDESHIYANJISHU,RUJIGUANGYOUDAOYINGGUANG。JIANGYISHUBUTONGBOZHANGDEHONGWAISHEXIANZHAOSHEDAOWUZHIDEFENZISHANG,MOUXIETEDINGBOZHANGDEHONGWAISHEXIANBEIXISHOU,XINGCHENGZHEIYIFENZIDEHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPU。MEIZHONGFENZIDOUYOUYOUQIZUCHENGHEJIEGOUJUEDINGDEDUYOUDEHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPU,SHIYIZHONGFENZIGUANGPU。

HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUSHIYOUFENZIBUTINGDIZUOZHENDONGHEZHUANDONGYUNDONGERCHANSHENGDE,FENZIZHENDONGSHIZHIFENZIZHONGGEYUANZIZAIPINGHENGWEIZHIFUJINZUOXIANGDUIYUNDONG,DUOYUANZIFENZIKEZUCHENGDUOZHONGZHENDONGTUXING。DANGFENZIZHONGGEYUANZIYITONGYIPINLV、TONGYIXIANGWEIZAIPINGHENGWEIZHIFUJINZUOJIANXIEZHENDONGSHI,ZHEIZHONGZHENDONGFANGSHICHENGJIANZHENGZHENDONG。HANnGEYUANZIDEFENZIYINGYOU3n-6GEJIANZHENGZHENDONGFANGSHI;RUGUOSHIXIANXINGFENZI,ZHIYOU3n-5GEJIANZHENGZHENDONGFANGSHI。YIFEIXIANXINGSANYUANZIFENZIWEILI,TADEJIANZHENGZHENDONGFANGSHIZHIYOUSANZHONG。ZAIv1HEv3ZHENDONGZHONG,ZHISHIHUAXUEJIANDESHENZHANGHESUODUAN,CHENGWEISHENSUOZHENDONG,ERv2DEZHENDONGFANGSHIGAIBIANLEFENZIZHONGHUAXUEJIANJIANDEJIAJIAOCHENGWEIBIANJIAOZHENDONG,TAMENSHIFENZIZHENDONGDEZHUYAOFANGSHI。FENZIZHENDONGDENENGLIANGYUHONGWAISHEXIANDEGUANGLIANGZINENGLIANGZHENGHAODUIYING,YINCI,DANGFENZIDEZHENDONGZHUANGTAIGAIBIANSHI,JIUKEYIFASHEHONGWAIGUANGPU,YEKEYIYINHONGWAIFUSHEJIFAFENZIDEZHENDONG,ERCHANSHENGHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPU。


上海11选5走势图YINGYONG1.DINGLIANGFENXIHONGWAIGUANGPUDINGLIANGFENXIFADEYIJUSHILANGBO--BIERDINGLV。HONGWAIGUANGPUDINGLIANGFENXIFAYUQITADINGLIANGFENXIFANGFAXIANGBI,CUNZAIYIXIEQUEDIAN,YINCIZHIZAITESHUDEQINGKUANGXIASHIYONG。TAYAOQIUSUOXUANZEDEDINGLIANGFENXIFENGYINGYOUZUGOUDEQIANGDU,JIMOERXIGUANGXISHUDADEFENG,QIEBUYUQITAFENGXIANGZHONGDIE。HONGWAIGUANGPUDEDINGLIANGFANGFAZHUYAOYOUZHIJIEJISUANFA、GONGZUOQUXIANFA、XISHOUDUBIFAHENEIBIAOFADENG,CHANGCHANGYONGYUYIGOUTIDEFENXI。


2.DINGXINGFENXI

红外光谱是物质定性的重要的方法之一。它的解析能够提供许多关于官能团的信息,可以帮助确定部分乃至全部分子类型及结构。其定性分析有特征性高、分析时间短、需要的试样量少、不破坏试样、测定方便等优点。传统的利用红外光谱法鉴定物质通常采用比较法,即与标准物质对照和查阅标准谱图的方法,但是该方法对于样品的要求较高并且依赖于谱图库的大小。


3.FUZHUJIEXI

有机化合物的结构鉴定在有机化学、生物化学、药物学、环境科学等许多领域越来越显示出它的重要性,而在各种鉴定手段中红外光谱以其方便灵敏的特性成为有机物结构鉴定的重要手段,除了它对分析结构特征反应灵敏这一特点外,红外光谱仪上海11选5走势图与计算机直接联机,也为引进一些与计算机科学有关的智能手段创造了条件。各种现代化的分析仪器的出现和广泛应用,使得在短时间内获得物质体系大量信息成为可能,这为化学计量学的数据挖掘研究提供了机遇。

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